Author: Karson Yaara

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During the later part of June, 2019, complaints from Plus Token e-wallet users in China, South Korea and Japan about their inability to withdraw from their account, had prompted Chinese law enforcement authorities to act swiftly. Their initial investigations led to the arrest of six (6) Chinese nationals working as core team of the Plus Token mobile wallet operation.

Dovey Wan Blows the Whistle on Plus Token’s Ponzi-Like Scheme to Alert the Cryptocurrency Community

News of the arrest did not receive wide coverage, which apparently was still under investigations. However, in early July, Dovey Wan, co-founder of cryptocurrency company Primitive Ventures noticed that the Plus Token site was moving out digital money in small amounts.

The movements made use of e-wallets not registered with the company when traded with crypto exchangers Bittrex, Binance and Huobi.

Although Ms. Wan tweeted about a possible Ponzi Scheme happening at the Plus Token site, cryptocurrency exchangers were unable to identify which e-wallet to block, since there were no digital currency transactions directly related to Plus Token.

Apparently, the Plus Token scammers have taken advantage of the sophisticated blockchain system of recording transactions. In using encryptions containing public and private key codes instead of real information about traders, the blockchain system makes it difficult to immediately trace and establish the identity of persons involved in cryptocurrency transactions.

As Dovey Wan had found out and later tweeted, unidentified Plus Token operators still at large were able to transfer around 70K Bitcoin(BTC) and 800K Ethereum (ETH) early in July. Ms. Wan summed up the entire amount that Plus Token had stolen from its investors, and arrived at an overwhelming estimate of about $3.2 billion-worth of cryptocurrency. .

The major players behind the Plus Token Ponzi-scheme still has control over the stolen cryptocurrency. Since July, they have have been transferring the digital money into different crypto wallets from which they can withdraw and convert the cryptocurrency into real money.

Crypto-Analyst Firm Reports that Plus Token Scammers Used Online Mixing Services to Pre-Launder the Stolen Cryptocurrencies

A related report coming from Token Analyst, a London-based crypto-analytic firm, said that the Plus Token scammers have been using online mixing services as a means of masking the origins of their fraudulent blockchain transactions even before the scam was discovered. Doing so enabled the fraudsters to trade the stolen digital currency at legitimate exchangers since the cryptocurrency online mixers were able to mix the money in different e-wallet accounts owned by Plus Token.

That being the case, the stolen money have been laundered and made to look like legitimate funds used for conventional transactions via the blockchain platform.

Cryptocurrencies as medium of payments, investments or borrowings can only transpire by way of blockchain technology. It is important therefore to have a thorough understanding how one becomes a cryptocurrency owner in order to take part in transactions using digital currency as medium.

First off, bitcoin is only one of numerous cryptocurrencies used to transact business outside of the conventional financial institutions. Digital currencies other than bitcoin are collectively called altcoins, which is short for alternative coins. Some examples of popular altcoins are Litecoins, Ethereum, Ripple, ZCash, and Cardano; there are several more available as an alternative to bitcoin.

Secondly, cryptocurrency transactions require the use of a blockchain platform or application in order to connect to other cryptocurrency users, to third party digital currency brokers, to traders or digital currency-wallet providers.

Thirdly, there are two ways by which an individual can acquire a particular cryptocurrency. One is by buying a preferred type of digital money from a broker or from an e-wallet provider using actual cash. The other method is by earning a unit of cryptocurrency for solving every set of related cryptocurrency transactions recorded in a blockchain open ledger. Solving and linking encryptions used in the blockchain ledger is a method of confirming the validity of a transaction that made use of bitcoin or a type of altcoin as payment or exchange mode.

How Does the Blockchain Technology Record and Validate Bitcoin Transactions?

The reason why this cryptocurrency technology is called a block chain is because several digital currency transactions occurring via a blockchain platform will be linked. The purpose of which is to tell a story of how one bitcoin or altcoin user came to own his or her cryptocurrency, and of how he made use of that particular virtual money.

A block refers to the time-stamped cryptogram code used in recording each related transaction in the blockchain ledger. Every block contains the cryptogram code containing the public key generated by the blockchain platform and the private key supplied by the cryptocurrency sender or payer.

Difference Between a Blockchain Public Key and Private Key

A public key is an encryption that identifies the kind of transaction that the blockchain will record. Let us say BitUser A buys $50 worth of bitcoin from BitTrader B. The public key generated by the blockchain platform will refer to this transaction. In order to complete a block, BitTrader B as sender must provide the private key to validate his authorization for issuing the bitcoin.

A private key therefore validates a cryptocurrency user’s ownership of the digital money being transferred to another. An owner receives a private key every time he receives digital currency as part of a chain of transactions. If the private key is invalid or missing, the transaction will not go through since it remains unconfirmed or unvalidated.

In our example, bitcoin recipient BitUser A received a private key, which serves as his authority to use or transfer the digital money to another recipient. In the same way, the new recipient will also receive a private key that will allow him to transact his own virtual currency deal. Miners will then solve and link all blocks of cryptogram codes connected to the bitcoin purchased by BitUser A. Doing so provides full authentication that all virtual currency used in the series of transactions came from legitimate owners.

Develop an understanding of the importance of a financial strategy when venturing into a business. Bear in mind that going into business is not just about making profit from an innovative product or idea.

Making profit is merely the goal, while the money infused as capital to build the business is the foundation. Money is invested to acquire assets to use in selling an innovation whether as a product or as a form of service. It is therefore pertinent to have a financial strategy on how to make vested money and profit yields work toward building a sound financial condition for the business.

It is not wise to let a business run without having any business financial plan integrated as part of management processes. Simply going where the business flow takes you is a flimsy business finance strategy. Mainly because this is a hit-and-miss stance which could find your business drifting while waiting for a lucky break, or eventually veer away from what you originally perceived as your business mission.

Example of a Business Finance Strategy

We have established beforehand that the main goal of operating a business and of investing seed money into a business is to generate profit. If you are a startup venturer, it is best to keep your profit making goals in proportion to your seed capital. Avoid aiming for big profits by entering into get-rich-quick methods or by way of unfair trading practices. Such methods may work at first, but will eventually backfire on you.

A business finance strategy is incorporated as part of a business plan. In a detailed manner, the strategy specifies how cash that is available on hand will be allocated and used in running the business.

Establishment of a Working Capital Fund

An example of a business finance strategy is one that establishes a Working Capital fund. The fund must be placed in a deposit account in order to segregate money purely for operational purposes. Other liquid capital funds must be allotted for investing on a major additional asset, or for the settlement of current liabilities or long term-obligation in a planned manner.

The next strategy is to implement a system of projecting cash flows for each month, as a way of earmarking Working Capital funds. That way money collected from business operations, flowing in as additional working capital fund will only represent increments. At the end of a cash flow period, any amount exceeding the original balance of the Working Capital Fund will immediately identify the operating period as a growth month.

On the other hand, if at the end of the period the Working Capital Fund is less than the original balance, then a deficit occurred. This denotes that business operations for the month did not bring in enough cash to cover the expenditures for the period, let alone generate potential increments to the capital funds.

In such cases the Working Capital fund requires replenishment, but a review of the cash receipts, expenses and other disbursements must be performed to ensure propriety and validity of transactions that resulted to a deficit.

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